Friday, September 30, 2011

Religious schools playing very vital roles in Canada--Sekolah agama memainkan peranan penting dalam pendidikan Kanada 宗教学校 在 加拿大教育中 扮演 重要 角色

Religious schools playing very vital roles in Canada--Sekolah agama memainkan peranan penting dalam pendidikan Kanada 宗教学校 在 加拿大教育中 扮演 重要 角色

Education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly, funded and overseen by federal, provincial, and local governments.[citation needed] Education is within provincial jurisdiction and the curriculum is overseen by the province.[17] Education in Canada is generally divided into primary education, followed by secondary education and post-secondary. Within the provinces under the ministry of education, there are district school boards administering the educational programs.[18] Education is compulsory up to the age of 16 in every province in Canada, except for Ontario and New Brunswick, where the compulsory age is 18. In some provinces early leaving exemptions can be granted under certain circumstances at 14. Canada generally has 190 school days in the year, officially starting from September (after Labour Day) to the end of June (usually the last Friday of the month, except in some cases in Quebec when it is just before June 24 – the provincial holiday).


Elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and there are many variations between the provinces. Some educational fields are supported at various levels by federal departments. The Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada is responsible for the education of First Nations.[19][20] Vocational training can be subsidized by the Learning branch of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (a federal department).[21][22][23]

1950 Canadian School Train. Pupils attend classes at Nemegos near Chapleau, Ontario.
Junior Kindergarten (or equivalent) as an official program exists only in Ontario currently. Kindergarten (or its equivalent) is available in every province, but provincial funding, and the number of hours provided varies widely. Starting at grade one, at age six or seven, there is universal publicly funded access up to grade twelve (or equivalent). Dependent on the province the age of mandatory entry is at 4–7 years. Children are required to attend school until the age of sixteen (eighteen in Ontario and New Brunswick). About one out of ten Canadians does not have a high school diploma – one in seven has a university degree – the adult population that is without a high school diploma is a combination of both immigrant and Canadian-born. In many places, publicly-funded high school courses are offered to the adult population. The ratio of high school graduates versus non diploma-holders is changing rapidly, partly due to changes in the labour market that require people to have a high school diploma and, in many cases, a university degree.

Canada spends about 7% of its GDP on education. Since the adoption of section 23 of the Constitution Act, 1982, education in both English and French has been available in most places across Canada (if the population of children speaking the minority language justifies it), although French Second Language education/French Immersion is available to anglophone students across Canada.

According to an announcement of Canadian Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, Canada is introducing a new, fast-track system to let foreign students and graduates with Canadian work experience become permanent eligible residents in Canada.[24]

Most schools have introduced one or more initiatives such as programs in Native studies, antiracism, Aboriginal cultures and crafts; visits by elders and other community members; and content in areas like indigenous languages, Aboriginal spirituality, indigenous knowledge of nature, and tours to indigenous heritage sites.[25] Although these classes are offered, most appear to be limited by the area or region in which students reside. "The curriculum is designed to elicit development and quality of people's cognition through the guiding of accommodations of individuals to their natural environment and their changing social order"[26] Finally, "some scholars view academics as a form of "soft power" helping to educate and to create positive attitudes."[27] Furthermore, "subjects that typically get assessed (i.e., language arts, mathematics, and science) assume greater importance than non-assessed subjects (i.e., music, visual arts, and physical education) or facets of the curriculum (i.e., reading and writing versus speaking and listening)."[28] The students in the Canadian school system receive a variety of classes that are offered to them. The system is set up to meet the diverse needs of the individual student.

[edit]Divisions by religion and language
Originally all the provinces had educational systems divided by religion, but most provinces have abolished these. Ontario, Alberta, Manitoba, the Northwest Territories, and certain cities in Saskatchewan are exceptions to this, as they still maintain publicly-funded Separate district school boards (usually Catholic but occasionally Protestant). In Quebec, the Catholic/Protestant divide was replaced with a French/English one in 1998. Quebecers must attend a French School up until the end of high school unless one of their parents previously attended an English-language school somewhere in Canada (immigrants from other countries cannot use this exception). In other provinces, English Speakers are not allowed to attend French Schools, unless one of the parent has French language as mother tongue, but they can easily attend French Immersion Schools.

[edit]Length of study
Most Canadian education systems continue up to grade twelve (age seventeen to eighteen). In Quebec, the typical high school term ends after Secondary V/Grade eleven (age sixteen to seventeen); following this, students who wish to pursue their studies to the university level have to attend college. Grade 11 was also the end of secondary education in Newfoundland and Labrador prior to the introduction of grade 12 in 1983.

Normally, for each type of publicly funded school (such as Public English or Public French), the province is divided into districts (or divisions). For each district, board members (trustees) are elected only by its supporters within the district (voters receive a ballot for just one of the boards in their area). Normally, all publicly funded schools are under the authority of their local district school board. These school boards would follow a common curriculum set up by the province the board resides in. Only Alberta allows public charter schools, which are independent of any district board. Instead, they each have their own board, which reports directly to the province.

Private schools

About 8% of students are in private schools.[31] A minority of these are elite private schools. These schools are attended by only a small fraction of students, but do have a great deal of prestige and prominence. It is not unusual for the wealthy and prominent in Canada to send their children to public schools, especially in the lower grades. A far larger portion of private schools are religious based institutions. Private schools are also used to study outside the country. For example, Canadian College Italy has an Ontario curriculum, but the students study in Italy.

Private schools have historically been less common on the Canadian Prairies and were often forbidden under municipal and provincial statutes enacted to provide equality of education to students regardless of family income. This is especially true in Alberta, where successive Social Credit (or populist conservative) governments denounced the concept of private education as the main cause of denial of opportunity to the children of the working poor. These rules lasted longer than Social Credit; it was only in 1989 that private K-12 schools were allowed to operate inside the boundaries of the City of Calgary.

[edit]Private Universities

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In the past, private universities in Canada maintained a religious history or foundation. Although since 1999, the Province of New Brunswick passed the Degree Granting Act [1] allowing private universities to operate in the Province.[32][33] The University of Fredericton is the newest University to receive designation in New Brunswick.

Trinity Western University, in Langley British Columbia, was founded in 1962 as a junior college and received full accreditation in 1985. In 2002, British Columbia’s Quest University became the first privately funded liberal arts university without a denominational affiliation (although it is not the first private liberal arts university). Many provinces, including Ontario and Alberta, have passed legislation allowing private degree-granting institutions (not necessarily universities) to operate there.

Many Canadians remain polarized on the issue of permitting private universities into the Canadian market. On the one hand, Canada’s top universities find it difficult to compete with the private American powerhouses because of funding, but on the other hand, the fact that the price of private universities tends to exclude those who cannot pay that much for their education could prevent a significant portion of Canada’s population from being able to attend these schools.

[edit]Religious schools

Each province deals differently with private religious schools. In Ontario the Catholic system continues to be fully publicly funded while other faiths are not. Ontario has several private Jewish, Muslim, and Christian schools all funded through tuition fees. Since the Catholic schools system is entrenched in the constitution, the Supreme Court has ruled that this system is constitutional. However, the United Nations Human Rights Committee has ruled that Ontario's system is discriminatory, suggesting that Ontario either fund no faith-based schools, or all of them.[34] In 2002 the government of Mike Harris introduced a controversial program to partially fund all private schools, but this was criticized for undermining the public education system and the program was eliminated after the Liberals won the 2003 provincial election.

In other provinces privately operated religious schools are funded. In British Columbia the government pays 50% of the cost of religious schools that meet rigorous provincial standards. The province has a number of Sikh, Hindu, Christian, and Muslim schools. Alberta also has a network of charter schools, which are fully funded schools offering distinct approaches to education within the public school system. Alberta charter schools are not private and the province does not grant charters to religious schools. These schools have to follow the provincial curriculum and meet all standards, but are given considerable freedom in other areas. In all other provinces private religious schools receive some funding, but not as much as the public system.

An example of how schools can be divided by religions in Toronto includes the Toronto Catholic District School Board and Toronto District School Board.

[edit]History of religious schools
The role of religion in Canadian education has been controversial for centuries. The first schools in New France were operated by the church. In the early nineteenth century the colonial governments moved to set up publicly funded education systems. However, soon religious divisions became problematic. At the time religious study was considered an integral part of education, but Protestants and Catholics were deeply divided over how this education should be delivered. In Upper Canada the Catholic minority rejected the Protestant practice of Biblical study in schools, while in Lower Canada the Protestant minority objected to the education system instilling Roman Catholic dogma. Thus in both these areas two schools systems were established, a Catholic and a Protestant. Upon Confederation these schools systems were enshrined in the British North America Act, 1867.

In the three Maritime provinces, schools were mainly Protestant, and a single Protestant oriented school system was established in each of them. In Newfoundland there was not only the Catholic/Protestant split, but also deep divisions between Protestant sects, and nine separate schools systems were set up, one catering to each major denomination. Eventually the major Protestant boards merged into an integrated school system. The three Prairie provinces adopted a system based on Ontario's with a dominant Protestant system, and smaller Catholic ones. In 1891, however Manitoba moved to eliminate the Catholic board, sparking the Manitoba Schools Question. Eventually the Catholic school system in that province was merged with the Protestant one. British Columbia established a non-sectarian school system in 1872.

Over time, the originally Protestant school boards of English Canada, known as the public schools, became increasingly secularized as Canadians came to believe in the separation of Church and state, and the main boards became secular ones. In Ontario all overt religiosity was removed from the public school system in 1990. In two provinces the sectarian education systems have recently been eliminated through constitutional change. Newfoundland and Labrador eliminated its tri-denominational Catholic-Protestant-Pentecostal system after two referendums. In Quebec the Catholic/Protestant divide was replaced with a French language/English language one.

[edit]Residential School System

The Canadian residential school system consisted of a number of schools for Aboriginal children, operated during the 20th century by churches of various denominations (about sixty per cent by Roman Catholics, and thirty per cent by the Protestants) and funded under the Indian Act by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, a branch of the federal government. The schools' purpose was, according to the Indian Act, to "civilize" aboriginals, teach them English or French, convert them to Christianity, and end their traditional ways of life.

A great number of First Nation, Métis and Inuit students suffered sexual abuse and cultural assimilation in the residential school system. The incidents mark one of the greatest cultural tragedies in Canadian history.

[edit]Levels in education

[edit]Canada outside Quebec
As the education system in Canada is managed by the varying provincial governments in Canada, the way the educational stages are grouped and named may differ from each region. For example, the Ministry of Education in Nova Scotia refers to Kindergarten as Grade Primary.[35] Also, opposed to their French designations in Quebec, Junior Kindergarten and Kindergarten in Ontario are called Maternelle and CPE Centre de la Petite Enfance in French.[36] Students in the Prairie provinces are not required by statute to attend kindergarten. As a result, kindergarten often is not available in smaller towns. The ages are the age of the students when they end the school year in June.


Religious schools playing very vital roles in Canada--Sekolah agama memainkan peranan penting dalam pendidikan Kanada

宗教学校 在 加拿大教育中 扮演 重要 角色



那些一直强调 好像只有 马来西亚 才有 “超过一种教育制度” 的 低能者。。。。应该到世界各地看一下。。。


尤其马华和民政。。。。要看下。。世界的多元化制度, 而且由各省负责。。。。

在英文,法文教育中, 还是宗教教育。。。。。。。。。。。。。 。。。

这样的制 度。。。。。。。。还不是让加拿大更成功。。。。。。。。。。不但是先进国, 还很稳定!!!

巫统,尤其老马, 还有他孩子(包括很多巫桶支持者的部落客, 都放有一个单元教育的标志)。。。。。。。


所以,董教总, 华文 教育与大专学院,如南方学院, 新纪元, 韩江, 还有林冠英, 华团, 中华大会堂 都应该到加拿大去研究。。。。。去学习。。。。回教党,应 该 研究加拿大的宗教学校教育 。。。。。。。。。


董教 总, 还有 教育工作者, 民联 都应该到加拿大。。。研究一下独特的教育 制度!!!!!!!!!!